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Jan 17, 2013


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Astaunga Marga of Lord Buddha 
(Cardinal Principles of Human Life)

Lord Buddha said, “Samyak Karmánta”. There are subtle instructions which have cardinal human value. Lord Buddha’s instruction to common people, one and all, was that everybody should follow eight such principles.

You know “Buddha” means, “he who has deep spiritual knowledge”, “he who is guided by intuition”.

The common man is guided by intellect or expediency or by inborn instincts or inborn faculties. The octopus knows that the crab is its food. This knowledge it acquires from whom? From experience? No. From books? No. It is inborn instinct. The peacock knows that the snake is its enemy. The snake knows the peacock is its enemy. These things are not book knowledge or knowledge acquired through experience or clashes or cohesions. These are all inborn instincts, or you may say inborn rights. In case of some developed animals, they acquire some knowledge through experience – clashes and cohesions. In the case of some more-developed animals, they acquire some training-they acquire knowledge through training. They undergo certain training. That’s like dogs, monkeys. And in the case of man, there is a subtler knowledge, above the subtle knowledge, and that knowledge is intuitional knowledge.

The man who has acquired intuitional knowledge is called “Buddha” in Saḿskrta. His instruction to common man, this eight-fold path, is known as “Aśt́áuṋga Márga”.

“Aśt́áuṋga” means “a collection of eight”, and Márga comes from the Saḿskrta word “Márga”, as in “Ánanda Márga”. (Márga means “path” in Saḿskrta, and during Buddha’s time the Saḿskrta language ceased to exist, and the people’s language was a daughter of Saḿskrta known as “Prákrta”. In that Prákrta “Márga” became “Mágga”.)

This past instruction was – the eight instructions are – Samyak Darshana, Samyak Saḿkalpa, Samyak Vak, Samyak Ájiiva, Samyak Vyáyáma, Samyak Karmánta, Samyak Smrti, and Samyak Samádhi. These are the Eight-Fold Path.

What is Samyak Darshana? In Saḿskrta and Prákrta – the Saḿskrta language was spoken by the Aryan people from 15,000 years ago to 5,000 years ago, for a long range of 10,000 years, and Prákrta from 5,000 years ago to 2,000 years ago, that is, for a period of about 3,000 years. In Lord Buddha’s period, distorted Prákrta was the common mass language, that is, the people’s language. In the later Saḿskrta, you may say Demi-Saḿskrta – it’s another system, that is a daughter of Vedic Saḿskrta –

(Latin also has two offshoots: one is Oriento-demi-Latin, and the other Occidento-demi-Latin. Oriento-demi-Latin languages are French and Italian, and Occidento-demi-Latin are Spanish and Portuguese. Latin is the source – was the source. Similarly in Lord Buddha’s time the language was Demi-Prakrta.)

Now in pure Saḿskrta the word “darshana” has two meanings, two imports. One meaning is “to see”, as a man sees, “to see”; and another meaning, the meaning found in Prákrta, is “to see with intuition”, that is, inner seeing, inner vision. Suppose you see, and you are thinking, that a man steals; but if you apply intuition, you will see that the man was hungry for four days. Now he steals. If you see externally, you will see that the man is stealing. He should be punished. Shouldn’t he be punished? Yes, he should be punished. It is ordinary seeing. But if you apply your inner vision, that is, intuitional seeing, you see that the man was without food for four days, and so under pressure of circumstances he had to steal. So after this inner seeing or inner vision, you will come to the decision that you will remodel the socio-economic structure so that never again will he be compelled to steal under pressure of circumstances, from being hungry for several days. I think you have fully understood the difference between the two seeings.

Now when I started Ananda Marga, I wanted all humanity to stand upon the strict code of cardinal principles, human values, and spirituality; and when I saw everything internally I came to the decision that there are so many loopholes in human society. Human beings came here about ten lakhs of years ago, but they have not yet been able to form a well-knit social order. We require a strong social order. That’s why I had to create another branch of philosophy, known as “PROUT”, through which we are to remodel the social order so that nobody is compelled to do anything, nobody is compelled to resort to immorality, for want of food or clothes or other necessaries of life.

Are you able to follow me? “Samyak Darshana” means not only seeing externally with these crude eyes, or rather, with the help of your ocular power only; inner Darshana means seeing with your inner ocular force, and this is the difference between “optical” and “ocular”. “Optical” is always physical, and “ocular” is physico-psychic and at the same time psycho-physical.

Now “Samyak Darshana” means that whenever you are to see anything, your vision should be inner vision, that is, ocular vision also. You must not say that somebody is a sinner. Just find the reason, the causal factor, that made him a sinner. This is what is called “Samyak Darshana”, the first item – “to see properly”. “Samyak” means “to do properly”, in proper style.

Then, Samyak Saḿkalpa. Philosophers and logicians of the past used to say that man is a rational animal; that is, man is also an animal, but this animal is guided by rationality. But as per Ananda Marga, man is not an animal. Plants have got lives, but plants are not animals, because there is no mobility in them.

Animals can move and the mental faculty is also a bit developed. Man also can move and the mental faculty is still more developed. But the difference between man and animal, the fundamental difference between man and animal, is that man (human life is an ideological flow) moves towards spirituality, and for an animal there is no spirituality – only eating, drinking, sleeping and dying. Human life is an ideological flow, and there lies the fundamental difference between man and animal. So what should a man do? A man should decide at an early stage of his life what he is to do, what his mission in life is. The sooner it is done, the better it is, because you will get more chance, you will get ample scope to do, to materialize, to translate this goal into the actional flow.

This is Samyak Saḿkalpa. A man should decide what to do – what should be his mission in life. “Mission” – the word “mission” comes from the root “mit”. “Mit” means “to do something worth doing”. To do something worth doing is a mission. “Mission” is the noun for the root verb “mit” – “submit”, “commit”, “omit”, “admit”. One’s mission in life – this is the second requisite factor, Samyak Sámkalpa. In Saḿskrta “Sámkalpa” means “firm determination”. “I must do it. I must be successful in my mission. I must adhere to the principles of my life.” This firm determination is the second requisite factor.

The third one is Samyak Vák. “Vák” means “expression of the motor organs” – hands, feet, tongue etc. Expression of the motor organs, that is, whatever you do with the help of your motor organs, it should be for the welfare of living beings. An ant is moving. You may kill it, you may not kill it. Why should you kill it? You must not. You see? Proper use of your motor organs. You may use a bad word for a man – for an innocent man – you may not use a bad word. Why should you use a bad word? Don’t use a bad word. Proper use of the vocal cord. So there should be proper use of all your motor organs, efferent organs.

Then the fourth one is Samyak Ájiiva, proper occupation. You may earn money by stealing, by doing so many – by engaging in so many antisocial activities, but it is not Samyak Ajiiva. Your occupation should be harmless. It must not go against the interest of any good people. This should be your occupation. But you know “occupation” actually means to keep your activity, to keep your vitality, engaged in the job. “Occupation”. But you know the occupation is not always physical. The occupation is psychic also, mental also. You may not steal physically but mentally you can steal. Physically you are not doing any harm to anybody, but mentally you may do harm to somebody. So that will be mental occupation. You should have a pure goal for your physicality and for your psychic faculty. That is, mentally also you must not do any harm to anybody. That is, you should – all your activities and sensory organs also should – be properly controlled. (In the case of Samyak Vák, I said that all expressions of your motor organs should be properly controlled. This is Samyak Ájiiva. Do you follow me?)

Then the fifth one is Samyak Vyáyáma. You see, for development of the physical body you undergo so many exercises – exercises with instruments, exercise without instruments – so many exercises, for development of the physical body. But one secret you should know, when the physical body is properly exercised for its development, and the mental body is neglected, those physically strong people will become a bit deficient intellectually. So in that respect it is a bit harmful. There should be an adjustment between physical development and psychic development; that is, along with physical exercise for development of the physical body there should be psychic exercises for development of the psychic body. And if physical exercises go on generation after generation, what will happen? The cranium itself will become smaller in size, as a result of which the brain will also be smaller and intellectual faculties will go on lessening. Do you follow me? There should be proper exercise of your physical body, of your psychic body, and also of your spiritual body. A man may be physically strong, and by dint of proper psychic exercise he may be psychically strong, but if there is no spiritual practice he will be no better than a plant, and such persons are called “Satans” of the society – they are polished Satans. They are, in common mass language, known as “hypocrites”. So there would be Samyak Vyáyám, proper exercise of your physical body, your psychic body, and also of your spiritual body. This is the fifth item.

Then the sixth one is Samyak Karmánta. Suppose you have started a particular work. Now you must not leave that work until that work is properly finished, till there is a happy finishing. Finishing should be done properly. This is called “Karmánta”.

Now one ácárya was initiating a man, and I asked him, “Now go. Complete the work. Don’t come here.”

That is, there should be Samyak Karmánta. You have understood the spirit. You should remember this thing in your private life, family life, social life. In each and every stratum of your life there should be Samyak Karmánta. Each and every job should be properly complied.

Then Samyak Smrti. What is “Smrti”? The English term is “memory”. The Saḿskrta, “Anubhútaviśaya sampramośa smrtti.” Suppose you acquire a certain experience. You saw something. You came across an elephant. Now when you saw that elephant, what happened? There was an inner psychic projection of the elephant in your mind. After seeing that external elephant, another elephant was created within your mind as the internal psychic projection. Now after a few months, or three years, or thirty years, when you are able to recreate that elephant within your mind, it is called “Smrti”, or “memory”. But when you are no longer able to recreate that elephant with in your mind as per your own experience, then you will say, “I have forgotten. I do not remember.”

Now Samyak Smrti is remembering whatever is congenial to the spirit of never-ending human progress, and other items you may forget. Suppose a man unnecessarily wounded your sentiment. If you remember it you will be suffering from internal pain, mental agony. Try to forget it. But suppose you have learned something good. You should retain it. Those items coming within the subtle scope, that is, the scope of retention, are “Samyak Smrti”. And the best thing that you must always try to retain within the scope of your Smrti, within the periphery of your Smrti, is the name of Parama Puruśa, is the idea of Parama Puruśa. You must not forget it even for a single moment.

30 May 1979 Evening, Valencia

(Not given in Seminar Note but here it is just to help the trainers)
When you meditate on some object ‑ whether physical or abstract or spiritual ‑ and when your mind gains complete identity of that object, at that time, you are said to have attained Sama'dhi on that object.  Therefore, Sama'dhi is said to be of three categories  ‑ 1. Physical Sama'dhi (Jad'a Sama'dhi).  Suppose, there is a flower.  While thinking of the flower, your mind takes the form of the same, that is called Jad'a Sama'dhi.  When the mind is suspended due to the practise of Kumbhaka Pra'n'a'ya'ma, that too is called Jad'a Sama'dhi.  The type of Sama'dhi obtained through the forcible suspension of mental propensities is also Jad'a Sama'dhi. 
 Mahars'i Patainjali has defined Yoga as "Yogashcittavrtti  nirodhah".  Yoga is a process of suspension (nirodha)  of all mental propensities (Citta Vrtti).  To strangulate the propensities is Yoga.  This is a negative process.  Where will these suspended propensities go?  They all remain within.  Sama'dhi is possible when these mental propensities are merged into something else.  One attains Jad'a Sama'dhi, if the gates of senses are forcibly closed.  It is, to some extent, senselessness.  I may only partially approve of the Pa'tainjali definition of Yoga,  but not completely. 
 Tantra defines Yoga, "Sam'yogo yogo ityuktah jiiva'tma'  Parama'tmanah",  that is, Yoga aims at complete unification of Jiiva'tma'  with Parama'tma'.  Even after suspension of the mental propensities, one may or may not attain Sama'dhi.  When mind gains complete identity (Sva'ru'pya) of its object, it is called Sama'dhi. When mind gains identity of physical objects (Jad'a), that will be a case of Jad'a Sama'dhi.  What may be the effect of meditation on a physical object ‑ an image of a wooden deity?  This will lead to one's attaining Jad'a Sama'dhi because the mental object is external physicality.
When mind meditates on abstract ideas (Bha'va'tmaka Vastu) and attains Sama'dhi, that is called Abstract Samadhi.  Then the A'tma' is Shtu'la (crude Stage).  If it becomes abstract, and when it becomes still more crude, that is called Jad'a  (matter).  Abstract Samadhi means Bha'‑va'tmaka Sama'dhi.  This is of two types ‑ 1. Purely mental. Here in this case, one meditates on a mental object.  Suppose, you have made a picture of a football in your mind.  One portion of your mind is visualizing that picture.  Here both the visualizer and the visualized are mental ‑ subjective mind and objective mind. 
 In this case, when the subjective mind gains complete identity of the object, it will be a case of pure Ma'nasa Sama'dhi.  Again, suppose, there is a football outside your mind, you are thinking of your mind and seeing it through the media of the Ru'pa Tanma'tras.  While you attain Sama'dhi seeing it, that will be a case of Jad'a  Sama'dhi.  This Sama'dhi is also of two categories ‑ 1.  By thinking of a material object, 2. By closing the gateway of the sense‑organs.  Ma'nasa Sama'dhi or Bha'va Sama'dhi is also of two categories ‑ 1. By creating a mental object and 2. By meditating on those sense‑organs, which are receiving incoming Tanma'tras. 
 When the Sama'dhi is on physical objects, it is called Jad'a Sama'dhi, but when it is on the Indriyas, it is not Jad'a Sama'dhi, that is a mental Sama'dhi, because  Indriya is nothing but an expression of mind.  Suppose, there is a duster, you can think of this object because of its Ru'pa  Tanma'tra. As a result of constant seeing of the object, when the seeing‑mind gains complete identity of the object, it is a case of Ja’da Sama'dhi (No.1).  When an Indriya is forcibly suppressed, that is also a case of Jad'a Sama'dhi (No.2), Nirodha  does not mean suspension, it is suppression.  When you create a mental football or a mental duster with the help of one portion of your mind and another portion of your mind sees it.  The one who sees, attains a kind of Sama'dhi which is Pure Mental (No. 1).  Suppose, there is a football outside. Your eyes are seeing that football.  Instead of meditating on that football you are meditating on the seeing Indriya. 
 Here Indriya does not mean the gate‑way of the physical sense‑organ, it is actually located in the brain‑cells.  This eye is an agent of the mind.  When you meditate on this Caks'u Indriya, a faculty of mind, one portion of the mind sees and another portion is getting slowly converted into Caks'u Indriya.  Then the entire mind becomes suspended and converted into the Caks'u Indriya.  It is also a case of Bha'va Sama'dhi (Bha'va Sama'dhi No.2).  This is internal, not at all external, but it is not Pure Mental either.  Some are inclined to treat it as Jad'a Sama'dhi, not as a Bha'va  Sama'dhi.  Possibly, they are not wholly incorrect.
 Spiritual Sama'dhi is only of one type.  And that is to be attained through Pran'idha'na and Anudhya'na.  Mind being suspended in its object (Spiritual), one attains Sama'dhi.  Therefore, Sama'dhi is mainly of 5 types ‑ 2 types of Jad'a Sama'dhi, 2 types of Mental Sama'dhi and Spiritual Sama'dhi.  A'nanda Ma'rga recognizes only one ‑ Spiritual Sama'dhi.

Nuclear Revolution
1969, Ranchi
A society may be described as the collection of numerous parallel psychic waves which originate due to the psychic tendency of moving together in unison. The glory of human society lies in the formation of a universal collective structure inspired by exalted ideas.
Dynamicity and staticity are inseparably associated with both individual and collective movement. Society is constantly moving; inertia means death. Social movement is the active effort to demolish a static structure and construct a dynamic structure in its place, and the characteristic of this movement is that it is rhythmic or systaltic, not linear.
All arenas of individual and collective life undergo changes with the changes in time, place and person. In comparison to the speed of change in social, economic, political and cultural life during the last 500 or 600 years, the speed of social change has greatly accelerated in the twentieth century. In the future, changes in society will take place with accelerating speed.
One of the scientific processes of social change is viplava or revolution. The Saḿskrta word viplava is derived from the Vedic root verb vi minus plu plus al. In the wake of every revolution, radical changes occur in individual and social life, and far-reaching changes take place in the collective psychology.
The main factor in revolution is the application of tremendous force to move society forward. PROUT defines revolution as,
Tivrashaktisampátena gatibardhanaḿ viplavah
[Revolution is the application of tremendous force to accelerate the speed of the social cycle.]
Replacing one age by another by crushing exploitation and bringing about a change in the collective psychology within a short period of time through the application of tremendous force is what is called “revolution”.
If the reverse takes place, and the social cycle moves in the opposite direction by the application of tremendous force, it is called “counter-revolution”. In counter-revolution, society is taken backwards to the previous age. PROUT defines counter-revolution as,
Tiivrashaktisampátena vipariitadháráyaḿ prativiplavah
[Counter-revolution is the application of tremendous force to turn the social cycle in the reverse direction.]
The main task of revolution is to overcome the barriers of staticity and inertia in the collective psychology of one age and establish the next age in the order of the social cycle. Society moves according to the inexorable laws of the social cycle, yet those who are concerned for the collective welfare will always endeavour to accelerate the speed of social movement by fighting relentlessly against exploitation so that all can move forward together in unison.
When the psychic balance in social life undergoes a revolutionary change, certain factors remain inseparably associated with that change. Some of those factors are the collective upsurge against exploitation; revolt against the status quo; effective struggle to the benevolent forces against the malevolent forces; and the longing for a new collective psychology among the people.
Human civilization has now reached a critical stage of transition. Exploitation of one human being by another has assumed alarming proportions. At critical junctures in the past, when exploitation had reached the zenith point, history witnessed the emergence of mighty personalities who were able to overcome the problems in society. Today also, the guidance of mighty personalities with a comprehensive ideology is required to lead humanity away from the edge of disaster towards a glorious future. The emergence of such personalities is an indispensable necessity of history.
The Social Cycle
There are predominantly four types of collective psychology. These psychologies are the shúdra, kśatriya, vipra and vaeshya. They have nothing to do with casteism and are completely psychological phenomena. Shúdras are those who are influenced by materialistic waves; they cannot overpower materialistic waves by their individual psychic waves. Manual power is their only means of social security. Kśatriyas bring the materialistic waves under their control through their physico-psychic waves. Vipras do the same thing through their penetrating psychic waves. For the kśatriyas, physical strength or valour is the principal means of attaining social security, while the vipras rely on their intellects. A perusal of history illustrates that the vipras, by dint of their intellectual acumen, created a sense of reverence and subordination in the minds of the kśatriyas, and were thus able to control their physical strength and prowess. The vaeshya psychology is somewhat different. The vaeshyas do not want to enjoy material objects; rather they get enjoyment at the thought of accumulating them.
Primitive society was guided by shúdra mentality. Gradually society became compact under the influence of kśatriya mentality, and the kśatriya era was established in the world. This was an era of heroes and kings. The kśatriya age was subsequently replaced by the vipra age – the age of intellectuals and priests. Next came the age of the vaeshyas. The difference between the former two classes and the vaeshyas is that the vaeshyas seldom come to power directly. They put the kśatriyas or vipras in power, and control the society, economy and polity from behind the scenes. Generally, the amount of physical and psychic clash is less during the kśatriya and vipra eras compared to the vaeshya era, where poverty, deprivation and exploitation are extreme.
The transition from one age to the next may take place through natural change, evolution or revolution. Natural change or evolution can bring about change from the kśatriya era to the vipra era, and from the vipra era to the vaeshya era, but to eliminate vaeshya exploitation, the application of tremendous force is absolutely essential.
As a result of vaeshya exploitation, those having kśatriya or vipra mentalities are transformed into the disgruntled slaves of the vaeshyas. They have no alternative but to toil at the behest of the vaeshyas to fill their bellies. Those kśatriyas and vipras who are turned into shúdras under circumstantial pressure carry a simmering discontent in their hearts. This group are known as the “vikśubdha shúdras” or the “disgruntled workers”. These disgruntled workers – the exploited vipras and kśatriyas – give systematic expression to the frustrations of the masses to end vaeshya exploitation. This is the class with revolutionary distinction.
The revolution which terminates the capitalist era requires the united struggle of the disgruntled workers. Shúdras can never be the actual revolutionaries because they lack sufficient moral stamina, responsibility and fighting spirit. They are vulnerable to many vices and are not well-established in human values, hence they cannot develop the requisite revolutionary character. The vikśubdha shúdras develop into genuine revolutionaries because they acquire the moral courage and discipline to oppose exploitation.
The revolution against capitalist exploitation is termed “shúdra revolution”. Although the kśatriyas and vipras are turned into vikśubdha shúdras due to capitalist exploitation, immediately after shúdra revolution, the vikśubdha shúdras revert to their kśatriya and vipra psychologies. Because of the martial character of shúdra revolution, the leadership of society passes into the hands of the kśatriyas, hence a new kśatriya era emerges. Even during the kśatriya era, the vipras try to establish their influence through force of intellect and attempt to move society along the path of vipra psychology. The vipra era is followed by the vaeshya era and then again by shúdra revolution. So, the movement of the social cycle and revolution are inseparably related.
The four types of psychology dominate the social cycle in cyclic progression. Towards the end of an era, the collective psychology undergoes marked deterioration. Moral degeneration and social retardation cause psycho-social stagnation. Exploitation becomes rampant. This sort of unhealthy situation signals the end of an era. The different classes try to usurp social power and establish their hegemony by trampling on the rights of others. This conflict has been discernible from the dawn of human civilization. Through this clash and cohesion, human beings try to find the path of emancipation.
In the modern world, capitalist exploitation is rampant almost everywhere. Capitalism is now rapidly moving into the final stage of degeneration. In the early part of the capitalist era, society experienced certain advantages, but towards the end, society has become the victim of insatiable rapacity, unbearable hardship and heartless deprivation. Those countries suffering under the weight of capitalist exploitation are rapidly moving towards shúdra revolution.
Types of Revolution
According to their form and character, it is generally considered that the types of revolution include palatial change and pyramidical revolution. Palatial change and pyramidical revolution are not revolutions in the true sense because they may or may not result in the change of the collective psychology and the forward movement of the social cycle.
PROUT advocates another type of revolution called “nuclear revolution”. In nuclear revolution, every aspect of collective life – social, economic, political, cultural, psychic and spiritual – is completely transformed. New moral and spiritual values arise in society which provide the impetus for accelerated social progress. The old era is replaced by a new era – one collective psychology is replaced by another. This type of revolution results in all-round development and social progress.
Nuclear revolution can only be brought about by sadvipras who reside in the nucleus of the social cycle. Through their concerted effort, moral and spiritual power and all-round endeavour, they mobilize the exploited sections of society to overthrow the ruling class – the exploiters. This very struggle for mass upheaval liberates society from exploitation and ushers in a new era of peace and prosperity.
Sadvipras will control the key points at the nucleus of the social structure. In nuclear revolution, there is minimum loss of life and property, and the transformation of society is accomplished within a very short span of time.
Requirements For Nuclear Revolution
There are several requirements for the success of nuclear revolution – the presence of exploitation in any form, revolutionary organization, positive philosophy, revolutionary cadres, infallible leadership and revolutionary strategy. All these requirements are necessary.
The presence of exploitation. There are various types of exploitation in society. The form and character of exploitation changes as per changes in time, place and person. In every era of the social cycle, there are various kinds of exploitation. For example, in the economic sphere there is feudal exploitation, colonial exploitation, capitalist exploitation, imperialist exploitation and fascist exploitation. Exploitation may also manifest in such spheres as the physical, psychic, economic, political and cultural spheres. In the past the slave system was prevalent in the Greek and Roman Empires. The rulers sucked the blood of the vanquished to bolster their own interests. In psychic exploitation, the masses are misled with the help of pseudo-philosophies which encourage dogma and narrowmindedness. Democratic socialism and the theory of peaceful coexistence are examples of the hypocrite’s psychology. In economic exploitation, vested interests deprive people of their minimum requirements. Money lending, charging exorbitant interest rates, compelling poor farmers to sell their produce through distress sales, etc., are examples of economic exploitation. Regardless of the type of exploitation used by the exploiters, when society is moving towards revolution, the role of the exploiters is exposed. The exploiters are unable to disguise their exploitation any longer.
The existence of exploitation in society can be ascertained through the prevalence of such factors as extreme poverty; social insecurity; injustices against the common people; lack of purchasing capacity to acquire the minimum requirements of life; huge economic and social differences between various classes; the irrational distribution of wealth; etc. The present social, economic and political conditions in India exemplify all these ailments. India is on the verge of revolution.
Revolutionary organization. Revolution and war are almost the same. Revolution is a type of war. The difference between the two is that in war force is applied on behalf of a person or state, but in revolution, force is applied by a group of people to establish a society free from exploitation. A revolutionary organization is essential for revolutionary war. During the psychic preparation for revolution, the disgruntled sections of society will have to build a revolutionary organization which will create a congenial environment for revolution.
A diverse, multifarious organization is required to conduct revolution. The responsibility of the organization is like that of a government. The revolutionary organization must be operational from the highest level of the state down to the village level. Local activists or coordinators are connected to every level of the structure. All the activities of the revolution are directed by the highest body.
If a revolution is started without building a proper structure, or if loopholes are left in the formation of the structure, the results will be disastrous. In the struggle for Indian independence, for example, the revolutionary leaders failed to build a structure down to village level, and the British seized upon this organizational weakness. Such loopholes cause unpardonable losses. This occurred in recent Indian history.
Positive philosophy. The revolutionary organization must follow a positive philosophy. A progressive, comprehensive ideology is the invincible weapon of the revolutionary organization. It counteracts negative ideas in society and generates a powerful, positive psychic flow in the collective psychology. People become revolutionary-minded, yet vested interests determinedly try to resist positive change, hence polarization occurs in the collective psychology. The duty of the revolutionary leaders is to create polarization through the propagation of a positive philosophy.
The philosophy of the revolutionary organization should be free from all kinds of narrow defects and dogma. If there are any defects in the philosophy or if it is not comprehensive, there is the danger that the leadership of society will go out of the control of the revolutionaries. This will be extremely harmful for the progressive development of the society.
In addition, the philosophy must be based on practice, not on theory. If there are any defects in the practical implementation of the philosophy then can be rectified, but if there are fundamental defects in the philosophy itself, the philosophy can never be implemerited, nor can it be rectified.
The theories of Marx and Gandhi are examples of defective philosophies. The fundamental principles of Marxism are unpsychological, irrational and anti-human. Marxists say that revolution is the only solution to capitalist exploitation. This is a positive idea. But the concepts of dialectical materialism, the materialist conception of history, the withering away of the state, proletariat dictatorship, classless society, etc., are defective ideas which can never be implemented. That is why the post-revolutionary stage in every communist country has suffered from turmoil and oppression. There is not a single country in the world which is established according to Marxist ideals.
Gandhism is also defective. Instead of guaranteeing liberation from exploitation, it favours the interests of the exploiters, hence it is a negative philosophy. Liberation from exploitation is impossible when the exploiters themselves find shelter in the philosophy. The co-existence of the exploiters and the exploited can never lead to a society free from exploitation. No revolutionary organization can accept Gandhism as an ideal philosophy. If any organization does, then it will no longer be a revolutionary organization, and it will break apart within a short time. This is an historical inevitability. Thus, the revolutionary organization must adopt a positive philosophy which is without defects.
Revolutionary cadres. Before the revolutionary organization gives the clarion call for revolution, there must be intensive preparation. In spite of the presence of all the conditions for revolution, revolution may not take place unless the exploited masses are psychologically prepared for revolution. If the people do not support revolution, the clarion call for revolution will not be heeded. Ideologically educated revolutionary workers will have to channelize the psychology of the common mass towards revolution and inspire them to undertake revolutionary strugle! Such workers must adopt a rational approach inspired by the positive philosophy, have a well-developed socio-economico-political consciousness, and be dedicated to uplifting the standard of the common people. The duty of these workers is to inspire the frustrated masses along the path of revolution. Through their dedication and dynamism, they will be able to bring the collective psychology in their favour. The first and foremost duty of the revolutionary organization is to create dedicated workers.
Infallible leadership. The success of the revolution depends on the leadership. Loss of life and property will be minimized to the extent to which the leadership is free from defects. Ideal leadership is the wealth of the society as well as of the revolution. It will not only lead to a successful revolution, but will also fulfill the hopes and aspirations of the people in the post-revolutionary phase of society.
In many countries a well-knit and prosperous society could not be built in the post-revolutionary phase due to the defective leadership. Concepts such as Plato’s philosopher king, Confucius’ sage, Nietzsche’s superman, Marx’s proletariat dictatorship, etc., were prepounded to develop ideal leadership, but all these concepts have failed. There is a vast difference between a theory of leadership and the practical, human qualities of a leader. Due to intelligence, acumen, social awareness, oratory skill and some other qualities, a few leaders were successful in the instigating revolution, but later on they became the objects of slander because they were unable to guide society along the path of real progress. They were unable to solve the pressing problems confronting the people or eradicate exploitation.
Sadvipra leadership is the ideal form of leadership. Such leaders will be physically fit, mentally developed and spiritually elevated. With their help and guidance, revolution will be materialized.
Revolutionary strategy. The forces opposed revolution possess immense military power. In spite of it, the revolutionaries achieve victory. This victory is due not only to a well-knit organization, progressive ideology and exemplary leadership, but also to revolutionary strategy.
Leadership is not imposed from above, rather it establishes itself through dedication, sincerity, ideological zeal, fighting spirit and all-round capacity. Leaders gradually acquire such capabilities – step by step.
A common base of integrity and unity amongst the exploited members of society will have to be established. This is essential because at the time of revolution there will be an all-out fight against antisocial activities and corruption. The revolutionaries will have to fight against three forces – outside exploiters, internal exploiters and other inner evil forces. All these three forces are powerful. Yet the moral, psychic and spiritual strength of the revolutionaries will be the cause of their victory, because physical weapons are not the only source of power. Moral and spiritual power is infinitely stronger than physical force.
Although the primary duty of the revolutionaries is to drive out the exploiters, they also have to ensure that these exploiters do not get new opportunities to capture power or undermine society in the future. The greatest achievement of a revolution is to eradicate exploitation and bring about a progressive change in the collective psychology through the minimum loss of life and property.
The Role of Sentiments
Revolution always takes place around a sentiment. If there is no strong common sentiment, a revolution cannot take place. Sentiment is always stronger than logic.
Communism propagates sentiments like workers of the world unite. Initially, people were attracted to such sentiments, but after some time they discovered that they were hollow, consequently intellectuals became dissatisfied with them. Communism is now unable to fight against the local sentiments that are coming up in different parts of the world because these sentiments are stronger than communist sentiments.
PROUT is based on a universal sentiment which is applicable for the whole cosmological order, and it is systematically moving towards the implementation of this sentiment. Who will make the local people conscious of their local sentiments keeping universalism in mind? Only PROUT can do this. Communists have no such idea. Only PROUT can tackle all local sentiments and lead everyone in the world to universalism by gradual stages.
Revolutionaries must be well-versed in arousing the sentiments of the people and channelizing the sentimental legacy of the society towards universalism. During the preparation for revolution, unstinting effort must go into arousing the sentimental legacy of the people, because sentiments inspire popular support for the cause of revolution, and infuse the revolutionary workers with tremendous power and conviction.
According to PROUT, there are two types of sentiments – positive sentiments and negative sentiments. Positive sentiments are synthetic in nature. They unite society and elevate humanity, enhance collective interests and encourage progressive development. Negative sentiments are narrow in scope and divide society.
Some important positive sentiments include anti-exploitation sentiment, revolutionary sentiment, moral sentiment, cultural sentiment, universal sentiment and spiritual sentiment. Some negative sentiments include communalism, patriotism, nationalism, provincialism, lingualism and racism.
Negative sentiments should never be used to divide people into castes and communities – to create artificial fissiparous tendencies in society. Rather, they should always be used to bring unity amongst people. Hitler used racism in an effort to unite the German people and he succeeded in the short-term, but because he used negative sentiments only and had no positive sentiments, his approach resulted in a world war and the near destruction of Germany. The path of negativity is extremely dangerous and harmful for society. Positive sentiments are the real weapons to build society. This must never be forgotten under any circumstances.
1969, Ranchi
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Microvita and Their Influence on Micropsychic and Macropsychic Corporal Structures

The subject of today’s discourse is “Microvita and their Influence on Micropsychic and Macropsychic Corporal Structures.” As you know, this universe is a mesh of waves of so many lengths, and along these wavelengths so many positive and negative microvita move in so many directions in the entire universe. Microvita are mainly of two types: the positive and the negative ones, each having their peculiar influences on different animate or inanimate structures; that is, they have influence on both animation and inanimation. And in living structures also, where there is a flow of vitality, they function in their own ways, creating either static or sentient influences in different portions of the human body, mind, glands and sub-glands. Except for the pineal gland and the upper layers of the pituitary gland, they influence almost each and every atom of the human structure; only the negative microvita cannot influence any portion of the body above the pituitary gland. The positive microvita may function above it but cannot touch the pineal gland.

Amongst the different plexi of the body, or the different nerve centres, microvita function directly on nerve centres and indirectly on other portions and other sub-glands of the body. They greatly influence the solar plexus and the sidereal plexus. In the solar plexus they influence the vocal, ocular and auricular capacities of the human structure, either in pro-materialistic order or pro-spiritualistic order. But above the igneous plexus the negative microvita cannot function properly; that is, above the igneous plexus the role of positive microvita is prominent, and the role of negative microvita is insignificant, far less than that of positive microvita. Similarly, in the igneous structure and below, the influence of negative microvita is prominent, and that of positive microvita is insignificant. So regarding the igneous plexus or other plexi, human beings should be well equipped with spiritual strength to resist the influence of negative microvita.

In the sidereal plexus, if positive microvita are allowed to function properly, accelerated by spiritualistic mobility or stamina, people become sanguine in each and every activity of welfare and service; that is, they will be assets to human civilization and human society. But if those positive microvita are not properly helped, their speed will not be accelerated. Rather, the influence of negative microvita will go on increasing and all the person’s thought-waves will be goaded unto the materialistic sphere, which may be detrimental to the cause of the all-round development of human society.

The next important influence of positive microvita on the sidereal structures is the propensity of endeavour, the propensity to do something concrete. If not properly directed, this sentient solar psycho-panoramic maximitis may be converted into static solar panoramic minimitis by negative microvita.

Someone is energetic in doing something good, and someone else is very energetic in doing something bad. If properly directed and accelerated by the influence of positive microvita, such people may do a lot, but if not properly directed they will move towards nihilism, towards cynicism, and destroy all the assets of human society.

Another propensity, psycho-physical attachment in [[a]] good sense, is also created by positive microvita when they influence the sidereal plexus. The reverse is true if negative microvita are allowed to function. If there is no spiritual [[pursuit]], certainly the influence of negative microvita will go on increasing.
Conscience – what is conscience? Conscience is the spirit of differentiation between good and bad, merit or demerit. 

This also depends on the influence of positive microvita on a sub- gland of the sidereal plexus, otherwise this conscience will die a premature death. Psycho-physical inertia is also created if negative microvita are allowed to function in the sidereal plexus, otherwise the positive microvita will crush the influence of negative microvita in creating psycho-physical inertia. Greediness is also encouraged if there is want of spiritual practice or spiritual pursuit; that is, in that case negative microvita will increase greediness in human minds. Hypocrisy in the human mind is also increased as a result of the influence of negative microvita on the sidereal plexus. The psychology of feeling repentant is also created by positive microvita as a result of its influence on the sidereal plexus. But as I have already said, above the igneous plexus all plexi are influenced more by positive microvita than by negative microvita; regarding the solar plexus I said that it directly influences vocality, ocular expression and auricular potentialities. These potentialities can do something concrete in uplifting the entire living society of the world; but if negative microvita are allowed to function, if there is no spiritual practice, naturally the reverse will be the case.

Similarly, in the case of the igneous plexus, where the influence of negative microvita is more than that of positive ones, the result is the static physico-panoramic maximitis of negative microvita; but if there is spiritual practice and spiritual longings, the reverse may be the case; that is, this static physico-panoramic minimitis may be transmuted into sentient psycho-panoramic maximitis of positive microvita. So one should develop the psychology of doing spiritual practice. Similarly, in the pneumatic plexus [at the anáhata cakra] also, inertia regarding worldly affairs is converted into inertia regarding something bad, something worsening.

I said that the influence of positive microvita on the human body creates sentient propensities, and that of negative microvita creates static propensities. I did not say anything regarding mutative faculties or mutative propensities because the mutative factor is not at all an attribute or wont or qualification, it is just a transitory phase moving from sentient to static or from static to sentient. The igneous plexus that maintains the balance of the physical structure and also the symmetry of the psycho-physical and psycho-spiritual orders, is the controlling point, hence it is the hub of the body, the nave of the body. Similarly, in the case of our social structure, a collection of two or more than two persons is called a society. As in the case with micropsychic order, the same is the case with macropsychic order also, and the collective body, as a result of the influence of positive microvita or negative microvita [[– the entire social body, the entire social structure –]] undergoes degradation or elevation.

I hope that you will not allow any degradation to take place in the human order, in the human system, and so you should encourage others on the path of righteousness and spirituality so that negative microvita will not get any scope to function on micropsychic corporal structures or Macropsychic corporal structures.

Human beings are social beings, and so in our social life, microvita must not be allowed to function. One of the important expressions of negative microvita on the human mind or human society is dogma. If you want to encourage positive microvita, if you want to encourage spirituality, you must fight dogma in different spheres and levels and arenas and strata of our society. This never-ending fight against dogma will help you a great deal in establishing a society of spiritualistic order, and in maintaining a balance amongst the three layers of human existence, the physical, the psychic and the spiritual.
(31 December 1988 RU, Anandanagar)

Matter and Abstract
(Not given in Seminar notes but here it is just to help the trainers)

The subject of today’s discourse is “Matter and Abstract.” Some intellectuals are of the opinion that matter is bottled-up energy. No, matter is not bottled-up energy. The characteristics and different wonts and specialties of energy are quite different from those of matter. The mass of matter has got nothing to do with energy.
What is matter? It is “known I” in the cosmic arena in different planes of inferences, and these planes of inferences have nothing to do with one another. They have got minimum proximity to one another. Somewhere there is maximum solidity, somewhere maximum dilution, and these phases of dilutions and solidities vary in huge number. So matter is not bottled-up energy.
Chlorophyll and sunrays are not the same thing. Sunrays are light energy, which as per the rule, may be converted into electrical energy, sound energy, magnetic energy and so many energies known and unknown to the world. They are interchangeable and inter-transmutable. But the position of matter is not such.
Chlorophyll is helped, is moved, by sunrays. It is the inherent wont of energy to create movement. Rather, energy and movement are inseparable. They are inseparable from each other. Chlorophyll is conveyed, is carried, by sunrays – and not only sun rays, but by the different rays of different celestial bodies. And this movement of different bodies through the media of energies does not pass in a straight line; that is, the movement is of systaltic character, of pulsative nature.
Where this movement in the plane of inferences of cosmic nature, that is, in the cosmic arena, creates a reflection only, there the reflected energy creates a sort of sentient reaction. And where there are reflections as well as refractions, these are of mutative character, creating mutations of various nature. And where there is no reflection, only refractions, they are of static nature. There is staticity in them. So matter is not bottled-up energy – it is “known I” in the cosmic arena, in the arena of the cosmos.
Now, the entity or entities coming within the conception of the mind are pure abstract, and those coming within the perceptions or feelings of the sensory or motor organs are matter, pure matter. But the position of energy and microvita is on this silver line of demarcation between matter and abstract. Energy generally comes within the range of perception, but not always. Energy in its subtle form does not come within the range of perception. Subtle microvita also do not come within the range of perception, but they come within the range of conception.
You know, both microvita and energy are active in different planes of expressions, that is, in different physical or psycho- spiritual planes of the unit or collective propensities, and in the physical planes of inferences. But microvita are more active in the physico-psycho-spiritual strata, and energy is more active in the physical planes of inferences.
Regarding the strength or influence of energy and microvita, this much can be said – energy is stronger in the physical planes of inferences than in the physico-psycho-spiritual planes of the unit and collective propensities. And microvita are stronger in the physico-psycho-spiritual realm of the unit mind.
Regarding positive and negative microvita – negative microvita function in a better way in the physical and physico-psychic strata, and positive microvita in the psychic and psycho-spiritual strata.
So there should be maximum utilization of the potentialities of the expressed and emanated energy as well as of the expressed and emanated microvita, both positive and negative. There is also use of negative microvita for the all-round and integrated development of this living world.
Microvita influence human intellect and also a portion of human intuition. The favourite fields of positive microvita are the psychic and psycho-spiritual strata, and the favourite fields of negative microvita are the physical and physico-psychic strata.
Energy is a blind force. It has got no conscience – what is to be done or what should not be done, this sort of conscience is lacking in energy. But microvita are not like that; that is, they are not blind forces. They have the support of conscience behind them. This is another fundamental difference between energy and microvita.
The effect of energy on different material bodies comes within the periphery of human knowledge if the wavelength is of medium standard – not extremely long or not extremely short. But the effect of microvita is to be felt – it cannot be expressed through language, it cannot be shown in the physical level. You must not try to acquire that occult power, but sometimes, by the grace of Parama Puruśa, it appears automatically.
Microvita, like energy, pass through various planes of inferences, and also through various planes of propensities. In the inference of say touch, microvita increase the temperature in the external sphere and decreases it in the internal sphere. In the case of odour, they decrease the temperature in the external sphere and increase the same in the internal sphere. But generally, regarding other inferences, such as sound and others, sometimes they may increase externally and sometimes they may decrease externally, according to the medium through which those microvita pass.
Now, energy is inter-transmutable and interchangeable, but matter is not inter-transmutable or interchangeable. It undergoes metamorphosis, metamorphosis once, but not always; that is, one way but not vice versa. In the cosmic arena, in the cosmic stratum, if we try to dissociate what we feel or what we conceive or what we perceive into the “knower” and “known” portions, the cosmos in the physical level is the “doing” entity in the physical level and is microvita; and the “done” portion is the world of physicality. And the “knowing” faculty in the cosmic level is the supreme cause or the subtlest form of energy, and the “known” portion or the “known” counterpart is the psychic and psycho-spiritual worlds.
Energy, if it comes in direct contact with this world of physicality, is converted into so many energies – magnetic energy, electrical energy and many other energies. And when that very energy functions through the cosmic “known” world, the Cosmic “Known” Entity, then it creates different psychic faculties, different psychic worlds. And if after passing through the Cosmic “Known” Entity it comes down towards the plane of cosmic or individual propensities, its movement is towards the crude, towards crudification. But if it moves towards the cosmic cognitive faculty it is converted into psycho-spiritual movement, and finally spiritual movement or into the Spiritual Entity.
Similarly, a microvitum, although it is initially the “doer” portion of the cosmic arena, if it passes through the expressed world of “done”, then it may create something good or something bad in the universe. If the movement is from a subtler plane to a cruder plane, it deteriorates or depraves the human mind or the standard of human conduct. But if the movement is towards a subtler plane, towards the subtler inferences of cosmic light, then it helps human beings, it helps spiritual aspirants, to attain the goal.
Microvita, when passing through different planes of inferences and also planes of propensities, can not only change the bodily temperature or temperatures of the mass, they can also create a radical change in the psychic wave, a change in wavelengths, a change in hormone secretion, and metamorphosis and transmutation in the mass and movement of hormones. This should also be carefully remembered and noted.
It is the duty of the intellectuals of the world to continue doing research work regarding the movements of energy and of microvita when passing through the “done” world of the cosmic or individual propensities, or through the “known” world of cosmic inferences, or passing through both types of planes; and also regarding the movement of energy passing through the plane of the “known” or the “knowing” world – the world of the “known” counterpart of the cosmos – and also through the world of individual propensities and different planes of individual inferences.
I would like intellectuals in the future to conduct experiments in their external physical laboratories and also in their internal psycho-spiritual laboratories. And you boys and you girls, you are to help them in accelerating the speed of their research work.

(3 June 1989 RU, Anandanagar)

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